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Psychiatric Diseases – Psychological and behavioural Signs and Symptoms

Well-recognized alterations of psychological functions and behaviour in mental disorders are of the severity that they cause significant distress, disability, important loss of freedom of choice and put the patient at increased risk of suffering death.

The psychological deficits show themselves as emotional distress in the form of sadness, anxiety lasting for days, unexplained or irrelevant fears, unexplained lack of enthusiasm or flagging of interest in every day life, concentration difficulty, impaired capacity to recall recent events and difficulty in making decisions even for trivial and routine activities of daily living.

Hallucinations are perceptual disorders in which the patient hears non-existent voices or perceives non-existent images. Uncommon perceptual disorders are perception of non-existent taste, smell or touch. Disturbance of thought shows itself as weird bizarre beliefs, which are not shared by the patients’ contemporaries. The speech can become irrelevant or incoherent.

The behavioural disturbance characteristic of mental disorders is lack of control. It manifests as repeated impulsive pattern in execution of basically undesirable tasks and/or as persistent stubborn, negativistic approach towards life. Unprovoked aggression or social withdrawal or unusual behaviour patterns like self-talking, self-smiling, or maintaining uncomfortable postures for long.

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